Multiple myeloma (MM) is a type of neoplasm in the blood and more specifically of plasma cells, the cells of the organism that normally produce the antibodies in our body used for its defense. In patients with MM, these cells do not function properly, do not produce normal antibodies but continuously produce large amounts of a similar protein.

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Kidney cancer is the third most common malignancy of the urinary tract, mostly affects older men and is among the 10 most common cancers that affect adults.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various systems. Mainly the skin, joints, kidneys, hematopoietic and nervous system are involved. In addition, it is a condition that belongs to the category of autoimmune diseases, diseases created by the disorder in which our defense system - the immune system - is directed against the body itself and causes injuries to organs and tissues. 

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Systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) relates to kidney disease, since "lupus nephritis” is a type of kidney disease caused by SLE. 30-50% of patients with SLE may experience renal function deterioration.

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  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, symmetric, polyarthritic but also systemic inflammatory disease, mainly affecting the small joints, especially the hands. It is an autoimmune disease in which the immune cells of the organism attack and destroy the healthy tissues of the body itself. If left untreated, inflammation can cause permanent damage to these joints.

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Scleroderma or systemic sclerosis is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune, inflammatory, connective tissue disease of unknown etiology characterized by fibrosis of the skin (scleroderma), the joints and internal organs (esophagus, intestine, lung, heart, kidneys). The skin is more often affected on the face and fingers, while in the course of the disease the whole body may be affected.

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Cancer is related to the causes of renal failure such as acute renal failure and chronic kidney failure both directly and indirectly. Kidney failure is often multifactorial in these patients.

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Kidney cancer is the third most common genitourinary cancer in adults.

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There are several studies linking smoking to the appearance (and in fact the appearance of CKD in the general population, e.g. to people without a risk factor for nephropathy) but also to the development of preexisting CKD. There is a greater impact in patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy or renal disease due to high blood pressure.

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Contrast agentsare substances widely used by radiologists and cardiologists to better visualize organs in CT, magnetic and angiography / coronagraphs. Without these, the examination cannot be successfully completed (coronaries / angiographies) or will be of low diagnostic value for specific clinical cases and questions (CT / MRI).

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are drugs that are used daily for analgesic action (painkillers) and for their anti-inflammatory properties. They are also used as antipyretics.

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