• Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune multi-systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The hallmark of this disease is the presence of non-caseating granulomasthat look like grains of sand affecting multiple organs. The presence of manygranulomas then affects the normal functioning of the organs in which they are present. It can affect almost all organs of the body, but more often it affects the lungs, mesotheliomaadrenal glands, lymph nodes, eyes and skin.

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Contrast agentsare substances widely used by radiologists and cardiologists to better visualize organs in CT, magnetic and angiography / coronagraphs. Without these, the examination cannot be successfully completed (coronaries / angiographies) or will be of low diagnostic value for specific clinical cases and questions (CT / MRI).

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are drugs that are used daily for analgesic action (painkillers) and for their anti-inflammatory properties. They are also used as antipyretics.

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Alcohol abuse can damage many organs in our body. This can also happen with our kidneys. The occasional use of alcohol does not pose problems, but alcohol abuse certainly does.

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Celebrated every year on the second Thursday of March, World Kidney Day (WKD) is the global awareness campaign that aims at increasing awareness of the importance of our kidneys to our health. This year, World Kidney Day and the International Women’s Day 2018 are commemorated on the same day, offering us the opportunity to reflect on the importance of women’ s health and specifically their kidney health.

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There is an increased risk of developing CKD when one or more risk factors are evident in relation to someone who has no risk factor.

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A risk factor is an environmental, chemical, psychological, physiological or genetic element that predisposes an individual to develop a disease. There are the risk factors that we ourselves can act to eliminate them, e.g. smoking (modifiable) and those we cannot intervene (non-modifiable), e.g. age.

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Vaccines are the most effective shield against a wide range of diseases ranging from common infections (such as flu) to severe life-threatening diseases (tetanus, pneumococcal pneumonia).

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Kidney can be described as the "filter" of the human body. The latter produces energy through food, which comes from a series of reactions producing useful but harmful toxic substances for the organism. 

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There are several studies linking smoking to the appearance (and in fact the appearance of CKD in the general population, e.g. to people without a risk factor factor for nephropathy) but also to the development of preexisting CKD. There is a greater impact in patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy or renal disease due to high blood pressure.

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Kidney cancer is the third most common genitourinary cancer in adults.

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  • Angiitis (or vasculitis) is a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by inflammation and damage to the walls of various blood vessels. This gradually results in the vessels rupture or its stenosis and blockage. The vessels and organs affected vary depending on the type of vasculitis. The damage caused may be transient or permanent.

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Scleroderma or systemic sclerosis is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune, inflammatory, connective tissue disease of unknown etiology characterized by fibrosis of the skin (scleroderma), the joints and internal organs (esophagus, intestine, lung, heart, kidneys). The skin is more often affected on the face and fingers, while in the course of the disease the whole body may be affected.

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  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, symmetric, polyarthritic but also systemic inflammatory disease, mainly affecting the small joints, especially the hands. It is an autoimmune disease in which the immune cells of the organism attack and destroy the healthy tissues of the body itself. If left untreated, inflammation can cause permanent damage to these joints.

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Systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) relates to kidney disease, since "lupus nephritis” is a type of kidney disease caused by SLE. 30-50% of patients with SLE may experience renal function deterioration.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various systems. Mainly the skin, joints, kidneys, hematopoietic and nervous system are involved. In addition, it is a condition that belongs to the category of autoimmune diseases, diseases created by the disorder in which our defense system - the immune system - is directed against the body itself and causes injuries to organs and tissues.

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Kidney cancer is the third most common malignancy of the urinary tract, mostly affects older men and is among the 10 most common cancers that affect adults.

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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a type of neoplasm in the blood and more specifically of plasma cells, the cells of the organism that normally produce the antibodies in our body used for its defense. In patients with MM, these cells do not function properly, do not produce normal antibodies but continuously produce large amounts of a similar protein.

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Cancer is related to the causes of renal failure such as acute renal failure and chronic kidney failure both directly and indirectly. Kidney failure is often multifactorial in these patients.

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  • Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease often show signs of sexual health disorders. 

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Horseshoe kidney is a congenital disorder. It consists of two distinct functioning kidneys on each side of the midline, connected at the lower poles by an isthmus of functioning renal parenchyma or fibrous tissue that crosses the midline of the body. This is the most common renal fusion disorder.

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